Horizontal Stratified Flow Model for the 1-D Module of WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2: Modeling and Validation
NURETH-14 - 2011 September 25-30

Presented at:
2011 September 25-30
Toronto, Canada
Session Title:
O11-1 Westinghouse Full Spectrum LOCA – A Realistic LOCA Evaluation Model Applicable to the Full Ran

Jun Liao (Westinghouse Electric Company)
Cesare Frepoli (Westinghouse Electric Company)
Katsuhiro Ohkawa (Westinghouse Electric Company)


In the 1-D module of the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 computer code, a horizontal stratification criterion was developed by combining the Taitel-Dukler model and the Wallis-Dobson model, which approximates the viscous Kelvin-Helmholtz neutral stability boundary. The objective of this paper is to present the horizontal stratification model implemented in the code and its assessment against relevant data. The adequacy of the horizontal stratification transition criterion is confirmed by examining the code-predicted flow regime in a horizontal pipe with the measured data in the flow regime map. The void fractions (or liquid level) for the horizontal stratified flow in cold leg or hot leg are predicted with a reasonable accuracy.

For a two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe, the individual phases may separate by gravity. This horizontal stratification significantly impacts the interfacial drag, interfacial heat transfer and wall drag of the two phase flow. For a PWR small break LOCA, the horizontal stratification in cold legs is a highly important phenomenon during loop seal clearance, boiloff and recovery periods. The low interfacial drag in the stratified flow directly controls the time period for the loop clearance and the level of residual water in the loop seal. Horizontal stratification in hot legs also impacts the natural circulation stage of a small break LOCA. In addition, the offtake phenomenon and cold leg condensation phenomenon are also affected by the occurrence of horizontal stratification in the cold legs.

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