Conference Proceedings Paper
CAUSES AND RADIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE CHERNOBYL AND FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS
13th International Conference on CANDU Fuel - 2016 Aug. 15-18
L. Sihver (Technische Universität Wien, Austria)
N. Yasuda (Technische Universität Wien, Austria)
In this paper the causes and the radiological consequences of the explosion of the Chernobyl reactor occurring at 1:23 a.m. (local time) on April 26, 1986, and of the Fukushima nuclear disaster following the huge Tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake at 2.46 p.m. (local time) on Friday 11, 2011 will be discussed. The design differences between the 4 RBMK, used at Chernobyl, and the GE designed BWR Mark I containment, used at Fukushima, will be presented and the differences in safety preparations at the two different nuclear power sites will be discussed. The paper will also present the radiological consequences of the two nuclear accidents, as well as recommendations concerning improvements of safety culture, decontamination and disaster planning. The need for a high-level national emergency response system in case of nuclear accidents will be discussed. The emergency response system should include fast alarms, communication between nuclear power plants, nuclear power authorities and the public people, as well as well prepared and well established evacuation plans and evacuation zones. The experiences of disaster planning and the development of a new improved emergency response system in Japan will be presented together with the development of improved teaching at schools and at the working places. There is a need for efficient coordination of training and education program, in order to ensure that professional rescue workers, including medical staff, fire fighters, police, etc., as well as the normal populations including patients, have sufficient knowledge about ionizing radiation and are informed about the meaning of radiation risks and safety.
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