11th International Conference on CANDU® Maintenance and Nuclear Components - 2017 Oct. 01-04

Presented at:
11th International Conference on CANDU® Maintenance and Nuclear Components
2017 Oct. 01-04
Toronto, ON Canada
Session Title:
Component Corrosion and Corrosion Control

C. Kozora (Graver Technologies)
A. Tavares (Graver Technologies)


Ion exchange resins are an accepted and established water treatment method for condensate polishing for the removal of species prone to cause corrosion. The minimization of such species lead to the minimization of asset degradation from corrosion and thereby leads to potentially decreased maintenance and increased asset longevity.
The purity of the ion exchange resin itself has an impact on this goal. The presence of chloride is detrimental in high-purity water systems and the ion-exchange resin can be a source of the chloride ion. Chloride ions in high pressure steam cycle chemistry (PWRs) can be concentrated by a factor of 100-350X leading to increased conductivity and promotion of corrosive reactions. Thus, dependent upon the chloride maximum specification, even ion exchange resins can contribute to the chloride level in the condensate.
Historically, 40 years ago, chloride specification for ion exchange resins were as high as 5%. Currently, it is at 0.5% for typical condensate and 0.1% for nuclear grade. The Ultra-Low Chloride (ULC) Anion Ion Exchange Resin has a specification of 0.05% with actual values typically well below this specification.
The Ultra-Low Chloride (ULC) Anion Ion Exchange Resin is manufactured by Graver Technologies via a specific anion regeneration process which enables the new low chloride benchmark specification to be established. This new industry benchmark has been well-vetted for station improvements per multiple- year utilization of Gravex GR 1-9 US Ultra (uniform particle size) and Gravex GR-1-9 NG ULC (Gaussian particle size distribution) at both PWR and BWR stations, respectively, in the northeast and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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