Over 30 years have passed since the 1977 SMiRT4 conference was held in San Francisco. During this time, nuclear energy has continued to be an important part of the world’s energy supply despite facing many challenges. With the estimated world population forecasted to reach 9 billion by 2050, the need for energy is expected to be more than the total energy produced to date. This projected growth in energy demand, coupled with the need for carbon free, secure and diverse energy supplies, confirms the potential for significant growth of nuclear energy. The industry has responded bydeveloping various standard designs, modular reactors, and novel ideas for the nuclear fuel cycle.